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- Skin is the largest organ with high surface area and has high absorptive power
- Free nerve ending
Our autonomic nervous system (ANS) comprises a complex array of nerves that constantly regulate our heart rate, breathing, digestion - and play a key role in dealing with stress. A major component of this autonomic nervous system is the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is “switched on” when we encounter a stressful situation and reacts in a way that is commonly called the “flight or fight response”. The effects of a stressed-out nervous system are seen in the diagram below. Dilated pupils, a faster heart rate, and poor digestion are some of the signs that may indicate that your nervous system is locked into this high-stress state. The corresponding constant release of stress hormones from the kidneys results in “adrenal fatigue,” and your skin may feel cold and lifeless. Our nervous system shunts blood and nutrition away from our skin and into our internal organs, getting ready to deal with the “grizzly bear” that never retreats.
There is increasing evidence that the cutaneous nervous system modulates physiological and pathophysiological effects, including cell growth and differentiation, immunity and inflammation as well as tissue repair. Both cutaneous nervous fibers and inflammatory cells are able to release neuromediators and thereby activate specific receptors on target cells in the skin or transient immunocompetent cells. Cutaneous neuromediators include classical neurotransmitters, such as the catecholamines and acetylcholine, which are released from the automatic nervous system or cutaneous cells. On the other hand, neuropeptides including substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide (CRGP), vasointestinal peptide (VIP) or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptides, such as alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH), may be released from sensory or autonomic nerve fibers and several epidermal as well as dermal cells.
The skin is one of the largest organs of the human body; therefore, it exhibits a plethora of physiological and homeostatic regulatory mechanisms. Indeed, the skin: (i) establishes and maintains the first line defense of the organism against various forms of physical, chemical, and biological harmful stimuli and challenges (barrier functions); (ii) is a highly active neuro-immuno-endocrine organ (actually, the skin and the nervous system grow from the same embryological origin, causing the skin-localized sensory afferents’ involvement in the neuronal processing of multiple sensory modalities (e.g. pain, itch, touch, thermosensation); (iii) functionally expresses all major humoral and cellular components of the innate and adaptive immunity (‘skin immune system’); (iv) it is not only the target but also the source of several hormonal systems (e.g. vitamin D family, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones; (v) also maintains proper motor (e.g. piloerection, vasoregulation), exocrine (e.g. sweat and sebum production) and transport functions. Of further importance, pathological alterations in these mechanisms result in the development of such prevalent dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis, acne vulgaris, various forms of dermatitis, hair growth disorders, and cutaneous malignancies.
Emerging evidence suggests that multiple transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (see Alexander et al.,2013a) are critically involved in the regulation of the above cutaneous functions. TRP channels, which were originally described as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ (Clapham, 2003; Damann et al., 2008; Vay et al., 2012) that can be activated by various physical, chemical and thermal stimuli (Ramsey et al., 2006; Vriens et al.,2008; 2009), are now considered as ‘promiscuous pleiotropic molecules’ since the above ‘afferent’ functions can be supplemented by ‘effector’ roles. Indeed, TRP channels are involved in cellular homeostasis and growth control, regulation of cell fate and survival, immune and inflammatory mechanisms, and endocrine and exocrine secretory processes (Nilius and Owsianik, 2010; Boesmans et al., 2011; Denda and Tsutsumi, 2011; Moran et al., 2011; Fernandes et al., 2012).
Recent excellent reviews elegantly summarize the plethora of evidence on the ‘afferent’ roles of multiple TRP channels in mediating the peripheral and central processing of pain, itch and thermal sensation (Niliuset al., 2012; 2013; Akiyama and Carstens, 2013; Brederson et al., 2013; Lucaciu and Connell, 2013; Tóth and Bíró, 2013). Therefore, in the current review, we have focused on the ‘efferent’ roles of various TRP channels, expressed by various non-neuronal cell populations of the skin, in the regulation of skin homeostasis under physiological conditions. Specifically, we present data indicating the involvement of TRP channels in: (i) the formation and maintenance of a physico-chemical skin barrier; (ii) skin cell and organ growth and differentiation; and (iii) cutaneous immunological and inflammatory processes. Moreover, we also describe the (potential) participation of certain TRP channels in the development of specific skin diseases and identify putative TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities for the clinical management of these (often very highly prevalent) conditions.
CBD Body Care, topical for skin and hair with cannabidiol oil!
As more studies reveal the restorative and healing properties of CBD oil-rich hemp plants, more and more manufacturers are also starting to focus on this valuable oil. Also, in the field of care, there are a lot of new developments taking place. Hemp oil can cleanse and restore your skin, leaving it extra silky.
Essential fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid A (and hence the rare gamma-linolenic acid) are extremely important to our bodily functions and the proper maintainence of a nutritional balance. A deficiency of these fatty acids can lead to all kinds of skin diseases, but also, for example: hair loss, dandruff, and brittle nails. Thankfully, all the skin cosmetic products based on hemp oil can provide nurturing support.
To make the hemp oil medicinally effective, oil is chosen from hemp plants with extra high levels of cannabidiol (CBD). Studies have confirmed that CBD has anti-inflammatory properties and can soothe the skin.
Among many other skin diseases and skin disorders, CBD-rich hemp oil is also frequently used by patients with psoriasis, neurodermatitis, pityriasis, pruritus and prurigo, eczema, warts, acne, itching, and many other skin problems. CBD-rich hemp oil products thus offer both the benefits of hemp oil as well as the benefits of cannabidiol together in one convenient product, making this a top commodity in the field of skin and hair care.